Answer 1 of 13: I keep hearing (and reading) the casino has less of an edge when. I looked at an old issue of the blackjack table/rules report (bridgefan1 also posts. Not significant if viewed that way - but going from a 0.40% house edge to ...

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Instead, they hone the sharpest (legal) edge they can.. Texas Hold 'Em, in which play is against the house rather than other gamblers.. “We had a blackjack game in Atlantic City with a weak dealer,” recalls Bobby. also read him the trespass act, meaning Grosjean would risk arrest if he tried to return.

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A player sits down, places a wad of bills on source layout, and asks the dealer for chips.

Play is house edge blackjack definition while the dealer spreads the cash on the layout, counts it, counts out the equivalent amount of chips, and more info slides the stack of chips to the player.

Usually, the player will sheepishly remove his two red chips, pick up the rest of his stack of chips, and without saying a word, leave the table embarrassed at what just transpired.

Therefore, rule number 1 is to known the betting limits on the blackjack table before you sit down and play.

Generally, the house edge increases as the number of decks increases.

But you also need to factor in the mix of rules.

Usually, the cards in a multi-deck game are dealt from a dealing shoe.

MIX OF PLAYING RULES This is where the rubber meets the road.

HOW THE CARDS ARE SHUFFLED If the game is dealt with a single- house edge blackjack definition double-deck of cards, the dealer will usually hand shuffle the cards and there is no issue here.

With a multi-deck game, dealers will either shuffle the multiple-decks manually, although this is time consuming, or via an auto shuffler.

There are several different kinds of auto shufflers and the one.

The reason for this is important so stay with me while I explain how each shuffler works.

Automatic blackjack shufflers have been around a long time in casinos.

Usually a casino will use two sets of multiple decks of cards on a blackjack table.

While one set of cards is being used by the dealer on the game, the other set is being shuffled offline by the automatic shuffler.

When the cut card appears, the round is completed and then the dealer will swap the cards; meaning, the just-used multi-decks will be placed in the automatic shuffler to be shuffled while the shuffled decks that were in the machine offline are put into play by the dealer for the next situation blackjack machines odds can />The purpose of using two automatic shufflers is to eliminate the wasted time involved in having the dealer manually shuffle the cards.

The odds against the player in blackjack do not change when an automatic shuffler is used to shuffle the multi-decks.

If the casino were using, say, six decks of cards, they this web page usually deal about 65 to 80% of the cards and then reshuffle all six decks using the auto shuffler.

A CSM, on the other hand, is a combination automatic shuffler and dealing shoe.

Casinos usually place five decks of cards into the CSM.

After a betting round is completed, the dealer will scoop up the just played cards i.

Do you see the difference between a CSM and an automatic shuffler?

With the latter most of the cards are played ca.

With a CSM, the discards are immediately returned to the shuffler after each round sometimes several rounds and randomly mixed with the unplayed cards.

With a CSM, the action never stops because the dealer continuously deals the cards without pausing for shuffling.

Do the odds change against a player when a CSM is used?

The answer is yes, they change very slightly in favor of the player, with the house edge against a basic strategy player reduced by about 0.

Now before you rush out and play blackjack on a table that uses a CSM, pay attention to the rest of the story.

Even though the house edge decreases slightly with a CSM, this is more than negated by the increased speed of the game.

Remember with a CSM-dealt game, there is never any down time for shuffling; therefore, on average, casinos can deal about an extra round or two per hour resulting in about 15 to 20% more hands played per hour with a CSM.

Ditto for games dealt with auto shufflers.

Given this fact, you are better off playing at a full table rather than a table house edge blackjack definition fewer players, or worse, heads up against the dealer.

GOOD AND BAD BLACKJACK RULES One of the key factors that determine the house edge in blackjack is the playing rules.

Some playing rules will decrease the house edge whereas others increase it.

As a general guideline, rules that offer the player options e.

H17 and blackjack payoffs 3-2 vs.

Here is a list of most of click to see more good rules in blackjack.

There are also websites where you can key in the rules of any game and they will automatically compute the house edge.

Here are some examples.

NUMBER OF DECKS All other conditions being equal, the more decks being continue reading, the higher the house edge against house edge blackjack definition basic strategy player.

For example, the following blackjack table shows the effect that the number of decks has on the house edge against a basic strategy player with H17 and DAS.

These are Total-Dependent house edges.

Notice that as edge blackjack number of decks increases, the house edge increases incrementally up to 0.

Notice also how the incremental increase in house edge keeps getting smaller as the number of decks increases.

PLAYING RULES Each of the good player favorable and bad player unfavorable rule affects house edge blackjack definition basic strategy, some greater than others.

The effect for any one rule, say surrender, may also be slightly different for a double-deck game vs.

Some rules are also more common than others.

Use this as a guide to determine which mix of rules is the most player favorable.

Reason: A 2-1 payoff decreases the house edge by a whopping 2.

Casinos sometimes offer 2-1 BJ promotions for a limited period of time.

You can also refer to the tables in Chapter 3 that summarize what the house edge me blackjack restaurant near for different number of decks and mix of rules to get an idea of what rules you should be looking for when you play blackjack.

TEST YOURSELF Try to answer the following questions based on the information in Chapter 6.

Manually shuffled games are slower and therefore better than an auto shuffler or CSM assuming same number of players.

Written by Henry Tamburin Ph.

Copyright 2019, the 888 Group.

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Our services in the UK are operated by 888 UK Limited, a company incorporated in Gibraltar, which is licensed and regulated by the.

Our services in European Single Market member states except for states in which our services are provided under a local license are operated by Virtual Digital Services Limited, a company incorporated in Malta which is part of the European Union.

Our betting products are operated in Ireland by 888 Ireland Limited, a company incorporated in Malta, which is licensed and regulated by Ireland's See more Commissioners.

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A blackjack game that allows aces to be re-split has a house edge that is .08% lower than one that does not, assuming that all of the other rules are otherwise ...

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The article addresses a variety of topics, including house advantage, confusion about win rates, game volatility, player value and comp policies, casino pricing mistakes, and regulatory issues.

Statistical advantages associated with the major games are also provided.

Casinos make money on their games because of the mathematics behind the games.

As Nico Zographos, dealer-extraordinaire for the 'Greek Syndicate' in Deauville, Cannes, and Monte Carlo in the 1920s observed about casino gaming: "There is no such thing as luck.

It is all mathematics.

That is what Mario Puzo was referring to in his famous novel Fools Die when his fictional casino boss character, Gronevelt, commented: click never lie.

We built all these hotels on percentages.

We stay rich on the percentage.

You can lose faith in everything, religion and God, women and love, good and evil, war and peace.

But the percentage will always stand fast.

Without the "edge," casinos would not exist.

With this edge, and because of a famous mathematical result called the law of large numbers, a casino is guaranteed to win in the long run.

Why is Mathematics Important?

Critics of the gaming industry have long accused it of creating the name "gaming" and using this as more politically correct than calling itself the "gambling industry.

Instead, they rely on mathematical principles to assure that their establishment generates positive gross gaming revenues.

The operator, however, must assure the gaming revenues are sufficient to cover deductions like house edge blackjack definition debts, expenses, employees, taxes and interest.

Despite the obvious, many casino professionals limit newspaper blackjack advancements by failing to understand the basic mathematics of the games and their relationships to casino profitability.

One casino owner would often test his pit bosses by asking how a casino could make money on blackjack if the outcome is determined simply by whether the player or the dealer came closest to 21.

The answer, typically, was because the casino maintained "a house advantage.

Given that products offered by casinos are games, managers must understand why the games provide the expected revenues.

In the gaming industry, nothing plays a more important role than mathematics.

Mathematics should this web page overcome the dangers of superstitions.

An owner of a major Las Vegas strip casino once experienced a streak of losing substantial amounts of money to a few "high rollers.

His solution was simple.

He spent the evening spreading salt throughout the casino to ward off the bad spirits.

Before attributing this example to the idiosyncrasies of one owner, his are atypical only in their extreme.

Superstition has long been a part of gambling - from both sides of the table.

Superstitions can lead to irrational decisions that may hurt casino profits.

For example, believing that a particular dealer is unlucky house edge blackjack definition a particular winning player may lead to a decision to change dealers.

As many, if not most, players are superstitious.

At best, he may resent that the casino is trying to change his luck.

At worst, the player may feel the new dealer is skilled in methods to "cool" the game.

Perhaps he is even familiar with stories of old where casinos employed dealers to cheat "lucky" players.

Understanding the mathematics of a game also is important for the casino operator to ensure that the reasonable expectations of the players are met.

For most persons, gambling is entertainment.

It provides an outlet for adult play.

As such, persons have the opportunity for a pleasant diversion from ordinary life and from societal and personal pressures.

As an entertainment alternative, however, players may consider the value of the gambling experience.

For example, some people may have the option of either spending a hundred dollars during an evening by going to a professional basketball game or at a licensed casino.

If the house advantage is too strong and the person loses his money too quickly, he may not value that casino entertainment experience.

On the other hand, if a casino can entertain him for an evening, and he enjoys a "complimentary" meal or drinks, he may want to repeat the experience, even over a professional basketball game.

Likewise, new casino games themselves may succeed or fail based on player expectations.

In recent years, casinos have debuted a variety of new games that attempt to garner player interest and keep their attention.

Regardless of whether a game is fun or interesting to play, most often a player will not want to play games where his money is lost too quickly or where he has a exceptionally remote chance of returning home with winnings.

Mathematics also plays an important part in meeting players' expectations as to the possible consequences of his gambling activities.

If gambling involves rational decision-making, it would appear irrational to wager money where your opponent has a better chance of winning than you do.

Adam Smith suggested that all gambling, where the operator has an advantage, is irrational.

Adventure upon all the tickets in the lottery, and you lose for certain; and the greater the number of your tickets, the nearer you approach to this certainty.

He could save or gamble this money.

Even if he did this for years, the savings would not elevate his economic status to another level.

While the odds of winning are remote, it may provide the only opportunity to move to a higher economic class.

Since the casino industry is heavily regulated and some of the standards set forth by regulatory bodies involve mathematically related issues, casino managers also should understand the mathematical aspects relating to gaming regulation.

Gaming regulation is principally dedicated to assuring that the games offered in the casino are fair, honest, and that players house edge blackjack definition paid if they win.

Fairness is often expressed in the regulations as either requiring a minimum payback to the player or, in more extreme cases, as dictating the actual rules of the games offered.

Casino executives should understand the impact that rules changes have on the payback to players to assure they meet regulatory standards.

https://microrcracing.com/blackjack/blackjack-edge-card-counting.html important, casino opinion online blackjack poker opinion should understand how government mandated rules would impact their gaming revenues.

The House Edge The player's chances of winning in a casino game and the rate at which he wins or loses money depends on the game, the rules in effect for that game, and for some games his level of skill.

The amount of money the player can expect to win or lose in the long run - if the bet is made over and over again - is called the player's wager expected value EVor expectation.

When the player's wager expectation is negative, he will lose money in the long run.

When the wager expectation is viewed from the casino's perspective i.

For the roulette example, the house advantage is 5.

Here are the calculations for bets on a single-number in double-zero and single-zero roulette.

It is also called the house edge, the "odds" i.

Regardless of the method used to compute it, the house advantage represents the price to the click at this page of playing the game.

Because this positive house edge exists for virtually all bets in a casino ignoring the poker room and sports book where a few professionals can make a livinggamblers are faced with an uphill and, in the long run, losing battle.

There are some exceptions.

The odds bet in craps has zero house edge although this bet cannot be made without making another negative expectation wager and there are a few video poker machines that return greater than 100% if played with perfect strategy.

Occasionally the casino will even offer a promotion that gives the astute player a positive expectation.

These promotions are usually mistakes - sometimes casinos don't check the math - and are terminated once the casino realizes the player has the edge.

But by and large the player will lose money https://microrcracing.com/blackjack/bellagio-blackjack-switch.html the long run, and the house edge is a measure of how fast the money will be lost.

A player betting in a game with a 4% house advantage will tend to lose his money twice as fast as a player making bets with a 2% house edge.

The trick to intelligent casino gambling - at least from the mathematical expectation point of view - is to avoid the games and bets with the large house advantages.

Some casino games are pure chance - no amount of skill or strategy can alter the odds.

These games include roulette, craps, baccarat, keno, the big-six wheel of fortune, and slot machines.

Of these, baccarat and craps offer the best odds, with house advantages of 1.

Roulette and slots cost the player more - house advantages of 5.

Games where an element of skill can affect the house advantage include blackjack, video poker, and the four popular poker-based table games: Caribbean Stud poker, Let Check this out Ride, Three Card poker, and Pai Gow poker.

For the poker games, optimal strategy results in a house edge in the 3% to 5% range CSP has the largest house edge, PGP the lowest, with LIR and TCP in between.

For video poker the statistical advantage varies depending on the particular machine, but generally this game can be very player friendly - house edge less than 3% is not uncommon and some are less than 1% - if played with expert strategy.

Blackjack, the most popular of all table games, offers the skilled player some of the best odds in the casino.

The house advantage varies slightly depending on the rules and number of decks, but a player using basic strategy faces little or no disadvantage in a single-deck game and only a 0.

Despite these numbers, the average player ends up giving the casino a 2% edge due to mistakes and deviations from basic strategy.

Complete basic strategy tables can be found in many books and many casino-hotel gift shops sell color-coded credit card size versions.

Rule variations favorable to the player include fewer decks, dealer stands on soft seventeen worth 0.

If the dealer hits soft seventeen it will cost you, as will any restrictions on when you can double down.

Probability versus Odds Probability represents the long run ratio of of times an outcome occurs to of times experiment is conducted.

Odds represent the long run ratio of of times an outcome does not occur to of times an outcome occurs.

The true odds of an event represent the payoff that would make the bet on that event fair.

Confusion about Win Rate There are all kinds of percentages in the world of gaming.

Win percentage, theoretical win percentage, hold percentage, and house advantage come to mind.

Sometimes casino bosses use these percentages interchangeably, as if they are just different names for the same thing.

Admittedly, in some cases this is correct.

House advantage is just another name for theoretical win percentage, and for slot machines, hold percentage is in principle equivalent to win percentage.

But there are fundamental differences among these win rate measurements.

The house advantage - the all-important percentage that explains how casinos make money - is also called the house edge, the theoretical win percentage, and expected win percentage.

In double-zero roulette, this figure is 5.

In the long run the house will retain 5.

In the short term, of course, the actual win percentage will differ from the theoretical win percentage the magnitude of this deviation can be predicted from statistical theory.

The actual win percentage is just the actual win divided by the handle.

Because of the law of large numbers - or as some prefer to call it, the law of averages - as the number of trials gets larger, the actual win percentage should get closer to the theoretical win percentage.

Because handle can be difficult to measure for table games, performance is often measured by hold percentage and sometimes erroneously called win percentage.

Hold percentage is equal to win divided by drop.

In Nevada, this figure is about 24% for roulette.

The drop and hold percentage are affected by many factors; we won't delve into these nor the associated management issues.

Suffice it to say that the casino will not in the long term keep 24% of the money bet on the spins of roulette wheel - well, an honest casino won't.

To summarize: House advantage and theoretical win percentage are the same thing, hold percentage is win over drop, win percentage is win over handle, win percentage approaches the house advantage as the number of plays increases, and hold percentage is equivalent to win percentage for slots but not table games.

In Let It Ride, for example, the casino advantage is either 3.

Those familiar with the game know that the player begins with three equal base bets, but may withdraw one or two of these initial units.

The final amount put at risk, then, can be one 84.

In the long run, the casino will win 3.

So what's the house edge for Let It Ride?

Some prefer to say 3.

The question of whether to use the base bet or average bet size also arises in Caribbean Stud Poker 5.

For still other games, the house edge can be stated including or excluding ties.

The prime examples here are the player 1.

Again, these are different views on the casino edge, but the expected revenue will not change.

That the house advantage can appear in different disguises might be unsettling.

When properly computed and interpreted, however, regardless of which representation is chosen, the same truth read: money emerges: expected win is the same.

Volatility and Risk Statistical theory can be used to predict the magnitude of the difference between the actual win percentage and the theoretical win percentage for a given number of wagers.

When observing the actual win percentage a player or casino may experience, how much variation from theoretical win can be expected?

What is a normal fluctuation?

The basis for the analysis of such volatility questions is a statistical measure called the standard deviation essentially the average deviation of all possible outcomes from the expected.

Together with the central limit theorem a form of the law of large numbersthe standard deviation SD can be used to determine confidence limits with the following volatility guidelines: Volatility Analysis Guidelines · Only 5% of the time will outcomes will be more than 2 SD's from expected outcome · Almost never 0.

Computing the SD value is beyond the scope of this article, but to get an idea behind confidence limits, consider a series of 1,000 pass line wagers in craps.

Since each wager has a 1.

It can be shown calculations omitted that the wager standard deviation is for a single pass line click at this page is 1.

Applying the volatility guidelines, we can say that there is a 95% chance the player's actual win will be between 49 units ahead and 77 units behind, and almost certainly between 81 units ahead and 109 units behind.

Note that if the volatility analysis is done in terms of the percentage win rather than the number of units or amount wonthe confidence limits will converge to the house advantage as click the following article number of wagers increases.

This is the result of the law of large numbers - as the number of trials gets larger, the actual win percentage should get closer to the theoretical win percentage.

Risk in the gaming business depends on the house advantage, standard deviation, bet size, and length of play.

Player Value and Complimentaries Using the house advantage, bet size, duration of play, and pace of the game, a casino can determine how much it expects to win from a certain player.

Using a house advantage of 1.

Many casinos set comp complimentary policies by giving the player back a set percentage of their earning potential.

Although comp and rebate policies based on theoretical loss go here the most popular, rebates on actual losses and dead chip programs are also used in some casinos.

Some programs involve a mix of systems.

The mathematics associated with these programs will not be addressed in this article.

Casino Pricing Mistakes In an effort to entice players and increase business, casinos occasionally offer novel wagers, side bets, increased payoffs, or rule variations.

These promotions have the effect of lowering the house advantage and the effective price of the game for the player.

This is sound reasoning from a marketing standpoint, but can be disastrous for the casino if care is not taken to ensure the math behind the promotion is sound.

One casino offered a baccarat commission on winning banker bets of only 2% instead of the usual 5%, resulting in a 0.

Again, this is an easy calculation.

Not to be outdone, an Indian casino in California paid 3 to 1 on naturals during their "happy hour," offered three times a day, two days how to calculate expected value blackjack week for over two weeks.

This promotion gave the player a whopping 6% edge.

A small Las Vegas casino offered a blackjack rule variation called the "Free Ride" in which players were given a free right-to-surrender token every time they received a natural.

Proper use of the token led to a player edge of 1.

In the gaming business, it's all about "bad math" or "good math.

Players will get "lucky" in the short term, but that is all part of the grand design.

Fluctuations in both directions will occur.

We call these fluctuations good luck or bad luck depending on the direction of the fluctuation.

There is house edge blackjack definition such thing as luck.

It is all mathematics.

Gaming Regulation and Mathematics Casino gaming is one of the most regulated industries in the world.

Most gaming regulatory systems share common objectives: keep the games fair and honest and assure that players are paid if they win.

Fairness and honesty are different concepts.

A casino can be honest but not fair.

Honesty refers to whether the casino offers games whose chance elements are source />Fairness refers to the game advantage - how much of each dollar wagered should the casino be able to keep?

A slot machine that holds, on average, 90% of every dollar bet is certainly not fair, but could very well be honest if the outcomes of each play are not predetermined in the casino's favor.

Such evidence can range from straightforward probability analyses to computer simulations and complex statistical studies.

Requirements vary across jurisdictions, but it is not uncommon to see technical language in gaming regulations concerning specific statistical tests that must be performed, confidence limits that must be met, and other mathematical specifications and standards relating to game outcomes.

Summary Tables for House Advantage The two tables below show the house advantages for many of the popular casino games.

The first table is a summary of the popular games and the second gives a more detailed breakdown.

House Advantages for Popular Casino Games Game House Advantage Roulette double-zero 5.

Optimal strategy assumed unless otherwise noted.

Note: This summary is the intellectual property of the author and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

Do not use or reproduce without proper citation and permission.

Selected Biblilography Cabot, Anthony N.

Gaming Regulation and Mathematics: A Marriage of Necessity, John Marshall Law Review, Vol.

Casino Gaming: Policy, Economics, and Regulation, UNLV International Gaming Institute, Las Vegas, NV.

The Business of Https://microrcracing.com/blackjack/vegas-blackjack-tournaments-2020.html Economic and Management Issues, Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming, University of Nevada, Reno, NV.

Gambling and Commercial Gaming: Essays in Business, Economics, Philosophy and Science, Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming, University of Nevada, Reno, NV.

The Theory of Gambling and Statistical Logic, revised edition, Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

https://microrcracing.com/blackjack/dealer-bust-cards-in-blackjack.html Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications, 3rd ed.

The Theory of Blackjack, 6th ed.

Extra Stuff: Gambling Ramblings, Huntington Press, Las Vegas, NV.

Humble, Lance, and Cooper, Carl 1980.

The World's Greatest Blackjack Book, Doubleday, New York, NY.

Kilby, Jim and Fox, Jim 1998.

Casino Operations Management, Wiley, New York, NY.

Chance, Luck and Statistics, Dover Publications, Mineola, NY.

The Mathematics of Games and Gambling, The Mathematical Association of America, Washington, D.

The Mathematics of Gambling, Gambling Times, Hollywood, CA.

Beat the Dealer, Vintage Books, New York, NY.

Vancura, Olaf, Cornelius, Judy A.

Finding the Edge: Mathematical Analysis of Casino Games.

Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming, University of Nevada, Reno, NV.

Smart Casino Gambling, Index Publishing Group, San Diego, CA.

Lady Luck: The Theory of Probability, Dover Publications, New York, NY.

The Casino Gambler's Guide, Harper and Row, New York.

His publications include Practical Casino Math co-authored with Anthony N.

Cabot and numerous articles in scholarly and gaming industry journals.

Hannum regularly speaks on casino mathematics to audiences around the globe.

Some of this guide has been excerpted from Practical Casino Math.

For more information, see.

Follow on Twitter and on Facebook © 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

Do not copy or reuse without permission.

Let's presume that a 2 Deck Blackjack game has a house edge of 0.45 and the dealer hits. Blackjack Insurance is defined as a bet on the odds of probability.

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The Wizard of Odds answers readers' questions about Blackjack.. For those bets, I define the house edge as the expected loss per bet resolved. I see that the ...

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Yes, however the edge would actually be less for the basic strategy player in a live casino.

This is because in a live casino the dealer will generally deal until a certain point is reached, finish that hand, and then reshuffle.

If the deck is rich in small cards good for the dealer when the cut card or shuffle point is reached then more cards are likely to be dealt than if the deck were rich in big cards at the shuffle point good for the player.

The effect over thousands of hands is that a disproportionately high number of small cards are dealt which is directly related to a lower player return on investment.

The effect is not huge but it is mathematically better to play with the same rules at an online casino as opposed to a physical casino.

For more on this topic, please see my blackjack appendix 10 on the.

I always include pushes in the house edge.

The only exception is certain craps bets that usually result in a push, namely the place, buy, lay, and hard ways, that tend to remain up until resolved.

For those bets, I define the house edge as the expected loss per bet resolved.

I see that the odds you've published for single-deck blackjack are in favor of the player.

Does this mean that if I play over and over again I have better odds than the house?

It is hard to find a blackjack game where the basic strategy player has an edge over the house.

The player edge in single-deck blackjack on my site is based on otherwise multiple deck rules, which rarely exist in single deck.

I organized the table this way to illustrate the effect of the number of decks.

Unified Gaming offers the best blackjack game for the basic strategy player I have ever seen is offered anywhere.

For a list visit my.

If you do play a game with a negative house edge then, yes, that does mean you will have better odds than the house, assuming you play the basic strategy.

Here in Natchez we have a river boat casino that allows the version 1 with blackjack, using six decks.

How does this affect the house edge?

Across the various blackjack strategies you provide on your site, does the standard deviation change much?

I would guess that when DAS is allowed, one's results are more variable, but how much?

Is there a good reference book that provides variance figures for various basic blackjack strategies?

Unfortunately I don't have exact standard deviation figures according to specific sets of rules.

The on my site is based on liberal Vegas Strip rules.

I agree that the double after split rule increases the standard deviation.

Surrender would decrease it.

Sorry I am not of more help than that.

On your blackjack page, in theyou indicate that the player has the edge in single-deck blackjack.

Numerous Vegas Casinos offer single-deck blackjack, but I doubt they are dealing a losing game.

Is your page incorrect or are the casinos just gambling on their clients not being able to play basic blackjack.

A friend of mine and I have a bet riding on this.

Is it true that with even a simple card counting system a competent blackjack player can consistently walk away a winner in the long run?

Thanks for your help.

You have a legitimate point.

At the time you wrote this I indicated the house edge according to a fixed set of rules that varied only by the number of decks.

However, in real life, when single deck is offered the other rules invariably become more stingy.

I have already enhanced the house edge table in the blackjack section to include a wider variation in rules.

The typical Las Vegas single-deck game does not allow doubling after a split and the dealer hits a soft 17.

With these rules, the house edge is 0.

The best single-deck game is at the Slots-a-Fun next to Circus Circus where the dealer stands on soft 17 for a player edge of 0.

Next door, at the Westward Ho, double after a split is allowed but the dealer hits a soft 17 for a house edge of 0.

About card counting, absolutely not, even the best of card counters will lose often.

An entire month can be at a loss.

Only over the very long haul does a net profit become likely.

Update: Since this writing the Westward Ho was torn down and the Slots-a-Fun has slots only.

What is the house edge?

Thank you for an answer.

Are you confident of your figures on the online software?

In particular, do you really have a.

It was determined using a random simulation program of mine.

I speculate the creators of the https://microrcracing.com/blackjack/blackjack-pershing-apush.html made a mistake and only intended to offer late surrender on tens and aces, as was the case with the preceding version.

I called one online casino that uses Unified Gaming and they were not even aware the new software allowed for early surrender on aces.

I give the house edge figures as a service to my visitors.

Update Jan 22, 2005: Unified Gaming changed the rules of their game years ago to remove the player advantage I have never seen any tips on blackjack where the dealer is dealt only one card.

This seems to be a totally different game than regular blackjack.

When you take a hit, you are taking what would be the second card of the dealers hand.

A lot of online casinos have this game.

Do you have any suggestions as to the best way to play these games?

It doesn't matter which card the dealer takes.

What is important is whether the player can lose more than their original wager if the dealer has a blackjack.

For example, at Starnet casinos, if the dealer has a ten up, and the player has an 11 and doubles, then the dealer can draw an ace afterward, for a blackjack, and the player will lose both the original bet and the double.

To adjust for this European no-peek rule, the player should be more conservative about doubling and splitting when the dealer has a potential blackjack.

For more information on the European no-hole-card rules, please see my.

I'm a dealer at Casino Niagara and want to know what the odds of a dealer making a hand are when the up card is a 5.

It seems to me and the other dealers that we all agree that we make a hand more times than not, and usually a good one at that.

Also, what are the odds of a dealer having a blackjack with an ace as an up card?

You're right, it is more likely the dealer will make a pat hand.

From mythe following are the probabilities of the dealer's final total given a 5 as an up card.

This assumes the dealer stands on a soft 17, which I believe is what you do.

What is your opinion of the continuous shuffle machines now being used at the blackjack tables in Las Vegas?

Do these machines give the house more of and edge even when a person is using basic strategy?

For those who don't understand what you're asking, there are new machines that take the blackjack discards and place them randomly back in the deck after each hand.

If you are using basic strategy, then the shufflers actually lower the house edge slightly, due to the omission of the cut card effect.

It is my understanding that they do provide an honest random shuffle.

However, the shuffling machine allows the dealer to waste less time shuffling and spend more time dealing.

This means you will spend more time playing, and thus more hands for the house edge to grind you down.

For more information on the mathematical effect of continuous shufflers, please see my.

I think your website is one of the best gambling sites on the net, and I have a question that I am hoping you would be able to answer.

There is an Indian casino a few hours from my house that has some odd rules and regulations.

I'm going to assume that eight decks are used and that the bonuses are not applicable if the dealer has a blackjack.

Using the Blackjack Count Analzyer I get a player advantage of 1.

This certainly is a very interesting game.

If you play it let me know how you do.

What are some of the best online casinos to play blackjack on, with the following criteria in mind - Best player odds, fewest decks, fairness?

Assuming you put the greatest priority on player odds I would have to go with a Unified Gaming casino.

You'll enjoy a player edge of 0.

First off, great web site!

In Reno I saw a game with the following rules: six decks, dealer hits soft 17, double after a split, re-split anything except aces, and the player could double on any number of cards.

For example, the player could draw to a four-card total of 11 and then double.

What is the house edge on this game?

You didn't state the surrender rule, so I'll assume it isn't allowed.

According to myand before considering the double any number of cards rule, the house edge is 0.

According to my list ofbeing allowed to double on any number of cards a rule commonly found in Panama is worth 0.

So, the house edge over the overall game is 0.

Here in Finland we have blackjack tables in some nightclubs and restaurants but these tables follow the following rules: six decks, ties push only on 21 and blackjack, ties on 17,18,19 and 20 the house wins!!

No surrender, European no hole card rule, double 9-11, unlimited splits!

I understand this is a bad deal for players but how bad is it?

What is the house edge in this game?

I have actually seen these rules when I went to Helsinki in 1986.

Without a doubt, the worst blackjack rules I have ever seen.

To answer your question, my says the house edge is 0.

My list of says the effect of losing on 17-20 ties is 8.

So, the overall house edge would be 8.

I wrote my own combinatorial program which cycles through every possible event and keeping a running tally of all the possible outcomes weighted by their probability.

Except in cases where re-splitting pairs is involved, my calculations are exactly right.

Can it actually be true that what I experience has a statistical base?

It seems to me that it takes a lot longer to win X number of chips that to lose the same amount I only play blackjack.

For example, if I start with 300 chips, it might take hours to double my money my goalyet I can lost that number in what seems like almost no time at all.

Can this really be true?

Also, do you have a rule of thumb about when to leave the table when you are winning?

What you have experienced is likely the result of some very bad losing streaks.

It may also be the result of progressive betting or mistakes in strategy.

The basic strategy flat bettor should have a roughly symmetrical expectation in terms of steep ups and downs, slightly favoring steep downs due to the house edge and a 48% chance of a losing hand compared to 43% chance of winning.

If I'm playing for fun then I leave the table when I'm not having fun any longer.

Counter can play any number of boxes, and any bet amount.

Counter can stop at any time, but cannot rejoin a shoe after missing a hand, or join a shoe that is partway through.

I haven't done any simulations, but my educated option is a definite yes, this game can be beaten.

The strategy to use in this game would be to bet the minimum when the odds are against you and the maximum when they are in your favor.

Normally a sudden 50 times increase in bet size would set off a huge red flag but it seems the counter could do this with impunity in your game.

After taking a huge beating, the Atlantic City casinos begged the gaming authorities for a change in the rules, which they got.

Not only could this be beaten, but I think it would be a card counters dream.

Michael, thanks for your advice.

I have two questions regarding the Odyssey machines that are very popular at Vegas casinos.

I like to play their Top Hat blackjack.

Is it worthwhile to use this feature?

If you win only even money on a blackjack, then that increases the house edge by 2.

I recommend the double or nothing feature because it is a zero house edge bet.

However, only double up on amounts you're comfortable with losing.

I don't have a blackjack simulator personally, but wondered what the house edge would be on the video blackjack here in Rhode Congratulate, idiots guide to blackjack share />BUT, here's the clincher, split Blackjacks pay 3 to 2 whereas traditionally they pay 1 to one I know this can make a difference of maybe 0.

Also late surrender on any hand, and dealer hits soft 17.

So, playing optimum basic strategy for these situations, what is the overall house edge.

My guess is that it' in the 1.

According to mythe house edge before the 6-card Charlie rule and the 3-2 on blackjack after splitting, is 0.

My list of says that the 6-card Charlie rule is worth 0.

It still doesn't pay to split tens.

So, the overall house edge is 0.

In other words, a player advantage of 0.

While I was still able to walk away with a bit of a profit, I was wondering if there was a quick and easy way to calculate just how much of a house edge this "commission" gave them?

I know that compared to dealer hitting on soft 17, it's gotta be a killer.

Let's say the house edge is 0.

However, a quick and blackjack simulator estimate is to simply divide the fee by the bet as the increase in house edge due to the fee.

I have just got into online gambling and have referred to your site for pretty much everything.

I appreciate all the information on the single-deck information, but what about the six deck game?

Can you tell me the player or dealer edge in this game as well as a basic strategy?

It would seem to me that this would be one of the best bets at which to count cards.

Thank you in advance!

You should follow my multiple-deck strategy but surrender against aces in the same hands as the single-deck strategy.

I haven't studied if counting this game is more profitable than the single-deck game, but I would be interested to hear from anyone who is doing as you suggest.

In blackjack, I've read that the dealer breaks about 25% of the time.

If that figure is correct, is that 25% of all the hands dealt, or 25% of just the hands that he hits?

Also, in blackjack the house edge varies according to the rules of that particular game.

What I'd like to know is, what effect, if any, does playing head to head with the dealer have.

It would seem to me that both of you will get more blackjacks, thereby reducing the house edge somewhat.

Assuming six decks, and the dealer hits on soft 17, if the dealer is forced to play out every hand them my says the probability of the dealer busting is 28.

However, in a head-to-head game where the dealer doesn't bother to draw cards if the player has a blackjack or busts first, then my says the probability of busting is 24.

I know that you have the casino advantage for blackjack listed on your web site in the case that a person plays the basic strategy, but I was wondering what the casino advantage was on average against a typical beginner.

Also, can you formulate what the best advantage a casino could have over the worst of players, assuming that they would never hit anything higher than a hard sixteen?

According to Extra Stuff by Peter Griffin the cost due to player mistakes of the average player is 1.

This is above whatever the house edge is assuming proper basic strategy.

It blackjack prizes free cash varies by place, Atlantic City players are better than Las Vegas players, for example.

Your other question about bad strategies was such a good one I added information to my blackjack section about it.

See my remarks on.

Top notch site you are running!

My question to you is: by how much does the house edge in blackjack increase if the player cannot afford to split or double?

Thanks for the compliment.

That is a good question.

Not having enough money to double or split, but otherwise playing correctly, adds 1.

Your web site is awesome!

I enjoy your advice and am amazed at the simple way you explain things about gaming in a way I can understand.

My question is this -- while playing a benefit blackjack game where they have from what I could tell, all the "Vegas" rules, I found out they were paying two to one for a blackjack.

This seems like a big benefit to the player; just how big is it?

Thanks for the compliment.

If I had been at this game I would have played it hard.

Assuming six-decks and otherwise Vegas rules, the player edge would have been 1.

The 2 to 1 on blackjack adds 2.

I just came back from Vegas and house edge blackjack definition at the Las Vegas Club.

At the time you asked this they still paid 3-2 on blackjacks.

Before considering the rule about doubling on 3 or 4 cards, and the six-card Charlie, the my says the house edge is 0.

My list of says that doubling on 3 or 4 cards is worth 0.

So, the overall house edge is 0.

However, since you wrote they changed their rules to pay 2 to 1 on suited blackjacks and 1 to 1 on all other blackjacks.

This increases the house edge by 1.

They still have the sign stating it is the "World's most liberal blackjack," which is patently untrue, if you interpret the word "liberal" to mean lowest house edge.

There is an article in the blackjack section that indicates that a CSM, Continuous Shuffling Machineactually lowers the house advantage for the basic strategy player.

I assume that is in a heads to head game.

Would multiple players increase the house advantage?

There are a great number of Casinos in the Vancouver area.

All except one offer no surprises.

However, one of them allows a funky variation on blackjack.

Could you please inform me as to how exactly this affects the odds.

I would think it would be of great benefit to the player?

According to by Stanford Wong, this rule adds 0.

Wong also indicates some strategy deviations under this rule on pages 60-61.

I was sitting at first base in an 8-deck blackjack game.

The dealer finished shuffling, and as she put the cards in the shoe she fumbled them slightly, flashing the first two cards: a jack and an ace.

Since I knew the jack would be the burn card, I also knew I would get the ace as my first card.

This is obviously to my advantage, but how much, percentage-wise?

I wish it had a happy ending, but I was dealt a soft 18, and ended up busting since the dealer was showing a ten.

Thanks for your time, and for the great site!

Thanks for the compliment.

I don't have numbers readily available for eight decks, but in a four deck game, where the dealer stands on soft 17, I get the player advantage given that the first card is an ace to be 51.

In by Stanford Wong he says the advantage in a six-deck game where the dealer stands on soft 17 to be 50.

Sometimes a Las Vegas fun book will have a coupon which can be used as an ace for the first card in blackjack.

Wong also mentions the kind of situation that happened to you in his book.

I was at the Soaring Eagle Casino in Mt.

Pleasant, MI this past weekend and while I was there I noticed a game called "Pitch" blackjack.

The game uses 6 decks, which are put into a shuffle machine, and then the machine delivers one "deck" to the dealer.

Dealer cuts and deals usually only two hands for a full table.

Then he takes the deck, puts it back in the shuffle machine, and retrieves another 52 card "deck" from the machine.

The rules are the same as for a standard shoe game except that the player is allowed to double down with 3 cards if they total 9, 10, or 11.

Does the house have a greater or lesser advantage?

It is a deceptive way to appear to be using fewer decks than are actually involved.

Mathematically speaking the house edge would be the same as for the total number of decks basic blackjack counting the shuffle machine.

Penetration does not matter for the non-card counter.

Thus it would not matter whether house edge blackjack definition machine or a human being cut off two decks from a six-deck shoe, the cards were taken from a six-deck shoe either way.

The Flamingo is offering a single deck blackjack game with regular downtown rules hs17.

The only difference is that they altered the natural payoff to 6 to 5 instead on the normal 3 to 2.

My questions are; How does that affect the starting advantage on this game?

What would it be?

How would it affect the insurance wager?

Specifically what would Insurance have to pay in order for the player to get "even money" and be square to the 6 to 5 payoff?

Using my good ol' normal downtown rules result in a house edge of 0.

Reducing the BJ win from 1.

So the house edge of this game would be 1.

For insurance to result in even money, it would have to pay 5-1 but the player could only bet 20% of the original bet on it.

Your house edge calculator is excellent.

How do you use it for continuous shuffle games?

Also, if the shoe is used, how does the house edge change?

My house edge calculator is based on the first hand after a shuffle.

So it is perfectly suited for a continuous shuffling machine game.

Contrary to popular belief the house edge is actually slightly higher on a hand shuffled game as opposed to a continuous shuffling machine game.

I explain this in more depth in my.

On a CSM blackjack game, 5 deck, what would be the effect of the dealer not putting discards back into the machine every hand if 24 of 52 cards in the discard rack were face cards?

What about 48 of 102?

What would be the effect if 44 of 52 cards were non-face cards?

Can the odds be heavily skewed?

However your speculation is right that the odds favor the dealer if he leaves a lot of high cards in the discard rack yet will put back into play a lot of small cards.

This would be the same kind of thing as preferential shuffling, in which the dealer of a hand held game shuffles when the count is good but deals another round on a bad count.

Preferential shuffling is something that definitely does happen here in Las Vegas so what you describe would not surprise me either.

Can you please explain the "cut card effect" in Blackjack.

I explain all about the cut card effect in my.

The reason house edge statistics are based on a non-cut card game is likely out of tradition and mathematical simplicity.

However you make a good point that it would be more accurate to inflate the house edge figures to account for the cut card.

Yet I am still going to stick to basing my house edge figures on the first hand of a freshly shuffled deck.

Blackjack is hard enough to analyze without worrying about the cut card effect all the time.

Hi, which Las Vegas casinos offer the best blackjack game?

Is there a website you know which lists the Vegas casinos and their BJ rules?

Thanks for any help you can give me.

I usually use for information on where the best blackjack games are in Las Vegas.

Surprisingly they say that Caesars Palace has the best basic strategy game: double deck, double on any two cards, dealer stands on soft 17, and late surrender for a house edge of 0.

Our local casino hands out promotional coupons, which act as a first-card ace in blackjack.

Do you know the overall expectation of having an ace as your first card?

Your question however could be rephrased as, "what is the value of the ace, house edge blackjack definition that the other card is not a ten.

My friend and I are debating two blackjack issues that arose from his Caribbean Vacation.

House favor or player favor?

It depends on the number of house edge blackjack definition />The casinos keeps an extra 0.

This is a huge increase, making this game the worst blackjack game in Vegas.

Actually a blackjack will occur closer to once every 21 hands.

An extra quarter this often is worth 0.

Most games where the dealer stands on a soft 17 or uses 1 or 2 decks will have a house edge less than this.

So, yes, you could gain a small edge.

At the Spielbank Stuttgart, one is given the option in blackjack to take even money immediately if one gets a black jack and the dealer shows a ten or an ace to avoid a push.

Is this a sucker bet?

I won 390 euro thanks to your card.

Yes, this is a very blackjack situational chart And bet, especially with a 10 showing.

This is equivalent to taking insurance.

The casinos here always offer "even money" in this situation and both dealer and other players will treat you like a fool if you decline it.

However the expected value of a blackjack when the dealer has an ace showing is 1.

It is a 4 deck shoe dealt from a Shufflemaster that, essentially created an infinite deck, inasmuch as the dealer puts the dead cards back into the machine for reshuffling pretty much as the completion of each round of decisions.

I have had some very good luck at this game and was wondering if it is one I should continue to play or switch back to the conventional 6 or 8 deck shoe.

There is a common misconception that a continuous shuffler is equivalent mathematically to an infinite deck game.

As I have explained in great detail in my a continuous shuffler actually lowers the house edge marginally compared to a cut card game.

However the dealer never stops to shuffle so you are being exposed to more hands per hour, so expect to lose more per hour.

I doubt very much they allow early surrender at the Mohegan Sun, if they did the player would have an edge of 0.

Assuming you really blackjack online dinero real late surrender the house edge is coincidentally 0.

Some casinos are now offering a single-deck BJ game paying only 6:5 odds for a natural.

What does this do to the house edge?

This is a popular new gimmick here in Vegas.

Many casinos here have prominent signs saying "Single Deck" blackjack.

However on a much smaller sign it says "Blackjack pays 6 to 5.

However the 6-5 on blackjacks costs the player an additional 1.

This is by far the worst blackjack game in city and I urge you to avoid it.

They can deal more hands per hour in a 7-spot game.

However the advantage per hand is the same.

Personally I hate these 7-spot tables.

Dear Wizard, I was recently playing blackjack with somewhat of a card-shark who also happens to be my friend.

We played casino rules, with one deck- and switched the deal after each time the deck expired.

Later, while I was shuffling- I noticed two 9 of spades side by side.

My friend obviously claimed he did not know about this, but it seems unlikely.

My question is, if you were playing in a similar scenario and were to add one card to the deck, which card would be most advantageous if only you knew about it.

Thank you for your time.

From my we see that each 9 removed from a single deck game increases the house edge by 0.

However if you were going to cheat it would be much better to remove an ace, which increases the house edge by 0.

If you were to add a card as the dealer you should add a 5, which increases the house edge by 0.

So, the best card for the player is the ace and the best for the dealer is the 5.

This just goes to show that you should always have double or split money available if you need it.

Dear Wizard, Just a quick question, why does the house edge change for an insurance bet in blackjack depending on the number of decks used?

Because we already know an ace has been removed for the shoe.

That leaves the rest of the shoe slightly ten heavy.

A greater the ratio of tens in the shoe the more https://microrcracing.com/blackjack/pppoker-multi-table.html the insurance bet is to win.

The fewer the decks the greater this effect is.

Wizard, I just recently played on a Casino Boat that had a Bust Bet at the Blackjack table.

Is this a bad bet and what might the odds be?

This is a sucker bet.

The most likely time the dealer will bust is with a 6 up.

However even then the dealer will only bust 42% of the time, give or take depending on the exact rules, for a house edge of 16%.

Some friends and I were in AC last weekend at the Claridge, where we spent the evening playing something called "Multiple Action Blackjack.

You are dealt your hand and the dealer is dealt one card face up.

The dealer resolves the first bet normally, then keeps the original face-up card and starts all over again, resolving the 2nd bet, and then the 3rd.

Essentially, you are playing the same hand 2-3x vs the same dealer "face-up card".

It seemed to us that this changed the strategies for blackjack somewhat.

It seemed to place a higher priority on staying in the game not hitting on various soft hands so as not to lose 3 bets at once by going over.

For example, with the dealer showing an 8, you would normally hit a 16, but in this game, it seemed as if we were better off standing on 16 and hoping that the dealer busted at least once out of the 3, thus losing 2 out of 3 rather than 3 out of 3 for busting ourselves.

The strategy for Multiple Action Blackjack is the same as regular blackjack.

By standing on 16 against an 8 your chances of a total loss are less.

However the safe thing to do is not always the right thing to do.

Hitting will result in a greater chance of winning 2 or all 3 hands.

Think of it as playing the same hand three times in a row.

What is right set blackjack accessories one hand is right for three hands, or any number.

I play at a local casino that offers a 6 deck, h17, DAS, DOA game.

However, they pay 2-1 on a suited blackjack.

How much does that reduce the house edge?

How would you figure this out mathematically?

I assume a blackjack tie is a push, so the probability of a suited blackjack, when the dealer does not have a blackjack is 1.

Getting an extra half unit 1.

In this case the house edge goes from 0.

Wizard- In a recent Ask the Wizard column there was a mention of Multiple Action BlackJack which I had played very successfully several years back at Foxwoods.

If this is true please do not post this on the site since it will be the end of this variation - it is no longer offered at Foxwoods.

I find https://microrcracing.com/blackjack/stardust-blackjack-table-valued.html site very informative and appreciate all your hard work.

Thank you for the kind words.

Much like multi-play video poker the house edge is the same for multiple action blackjack as regular blackjack, assuming the same rules.

It is true that if the player has blackjack he wins on all three hands.

However if the player has a 16 he has to play it on all three hands.

Overall everything balances out.

If the house edge in a shoe game of blackjack is "x" percent for the first hand after a shuffle, does the house edge also work out to be exactly "x" percent on average if you play through the entire shoe assuming flat betting and basic strategy?

In a cut card game the answer is no.

However in a game where the dealer please click for source exactly x hands every shoe the answer would be yes.

The reason is hard to explain.

For more information please see my.

Here in Ontario, people have the opportunity to "piggyback" a blackjack player instead of waiting for a spot at a full table.

When the primary player doubles or splits, the piggybacker has the option but not the obligation to do so.

This seems like it would be beneficial in some cases, for example 8,8 vs 10.

In this case, the piggybacker has turned his 16 into an 8 for free.

Assuming the primary player plays perfect basic strategy, what is the house edge for the piggybacker?

I have seen this rule at the casino in Montreal as well.

Yes, this is a good opportunity for player collusion, where the seated player bets small and makes sacrificial plays for the big bettor in back.

There are lots of changes to the splitting strategy, for example the seated player should always split twos and then the back bettor should play both hands against a 4 to 6, otherwise play only one.

Hello Wizard, When I use your calculator for BJ it shows a huge differential in house advantage between a single deck and Double deck.

Would there be a difference in the double deck house advantage if the deck is cut in half?

What would be the difference in the house advantage for any number of decks if you cut off a larger portion of the deck?

The house edge for a double-deck game is the same regardless of how many decks they cut off.

Many dealers incorrectly claim that a double deck game cut in half has the same odds as a single deck game.

Unless you are counting the placement of the cut card makes no difference.

Is it permissible table etiquette to double down with your money and the article source and rewards are yours for a fellow player who refuses to double because of lack of money, fear or ignorance?

The dealer was encouraging her to "double for less" although the dealer permitted me to make this player the short term "loan".

And I won, ha-ha!

As long as both players are agreeable then the casino is unlikely to stop you.

In some situations it may not be practial because the player may want to take more than 3 cards.

However with 10 against 4 the player should never take a fourth card, thus it was a good idea.

My shows the fair value of all hands.

As an example suppose another player had blackjack and the dealer had an ace up.

Most players would take even money.

You could make money by offering that player more than even money, but less than 103.

You have the greatest gambling site in the world!!

If I follow the basic strategy chart intended for "shoe" games in a double deck game what percentage am I sacrificing?

Or if I use the double deck strategy in a shoe game what am I losing?

Thank you for the compliment.

Assuming the dealer hits a soft 17 you are adding https://microrcracing.com/blackjack/blackjack-mistake-free-bet.html />Playing double deck strategy in a 6 deck game costs 0.

To take this question further I wondered about a more extreme case of playing 4-8 deck strategy for the dealer standing on soft 17 in a single deck game where the dealer hits a soft 17.

In this situation the incorrect basic strategy adds 0.

While in northern Michigan I came across a new blackjack rule click splitting aces.

Instead of resplitting you still only receive one card but you may double on it if you like.

Can you tell me the effect of this rule?

According to my analysis, being allowed to double after splitting aces decreases the house edge by 0.

However not allowing resplitting any pair, compared to resplitting to four hands, increases the house edge by 0.

So the combination of the two rules decreases the house edge by 0.

Following is the basic strategy of when to double after splitting aces, assuming 4 to 8 decks and the dealer stands on soft 17: Soft 12 to soft 16: double against anything Soft 17: double against 2 to 9 Soft 18: double against 3 to 6 Soft 19 to 21: never double Hello Wizard, great site with a wealth of information!

My question is this: How much does the house advantage increase when they change the rule from double after split allowed on anything, into Double after split allowed except on aces?

Thanks for the kind words.

I think I answered this before somewhere but being allowed to double on split aces gives the player an extra 0.

Nowhere near the 1.

First, two columns ago, someone asked about splitting aces and then doubling.

You seemed to answer it as if the question meant you could double after you received the second card on top of the ace.

I read the question as meaning you could double on the ace only, as if it were two cards that added up to 11.

I think that would impact your response, but I'm not sure by how much.

Yes, I interpreted the question that the place could after the second card was dealt to the split aces.

If the player could double on each ace alone then that would reduce the house edge by 0.

With an ace alone the player should opt to double against any dealer up card.

What is the effect of this rule and what are the strategy changes, if any?

This is a great rule!

The only hand you would normally split that favors surrendering is 8,8 against a 10.

The value of surrendering diminishes as the odd-numbered bet gets higher.

I received a promotion from a casino that offers to return half my wager if the dealer gets a blackjack.

How would it affect the house edge and would there be any strategy change to play it optimally?

That is a great offer.

So a half bet every time that happens is worth 2.

Assuming a house edge of 0.

The strategy is the same as regular blackjack.

Too bad I missed that one.

How would it go here the strategy assuming Cryptologic rules 6 decks and how does it increase the house edge?

Not being allowed to split aces increases the house edge by 0.

You should only double against a six, otherwise hit.

According to my simulations in six-deck game with no three-card guarantee and 75% penetration the true count is 5 or greater 23.

In the game with a three-card guarantee the average advantage goes up to 29.

I have a Blackjack question that I did not see already answered on your site.

According to my calculations this would give the player about an 8.

The optimal strategy is the same as that of in most cases.

However if you think the dealer will expose his hole card again I would recommend not making it obvious that you know and not make plays that normally look ridiculous like hitting a 19 against a 20.

No splitting costs the player 0.

No doubling costs the player 1.

No splitting nor doubling costs the player 1.

If so, would playing the games using basic table blackjack strategy give the player the best payback percentage?

If not, is there a basic strategy for video blackjack?

Any video representation of a card game in the state of Nevada must be dealt from a fairly shuffled deck.

In other words you should expect the same kind of outcome as in a live game with the same rules.

So basic strategy tables will also work for video blackjack.

What is the correct basic strategy when that happens?

Stanford Wong gives such a basic strategy in his booksee table 46.

He also said that in 1995 the Bourbon Street casino in Vegas had a promotion in which every 50 minutes the dealer would expose both his cards for five hands.

The player advantage during those was about 10%, according to Wong.

I have been researching Casino Bar because they have a nice bonus today.

I ran across your claim that their software does the equivalent of "dealing seconds", but I see that your information was last updated about two years ago.

I was wondering if you know of any change in that situation, please.

I suspect you would have updated the page if there had been a change, but I thought I would ask.

Where could I find a basic strategy sheet for a casino dealing seconds?

Am I right in thinking the house edge is close to 5% in such a game?

Of course, if that is the case I may as well play tricard poker.

Thank you for a great website.

Do you accept donations?

When I find a casino is not playing fair I don't generally go back to check if they've stopped.

Sometimes I do if requested by the casino and I feel the problem may have been accidental.

Following is a basic strategy, based on infinite decks, where the dealer stands on soft 17 and deals seconds.

What I mean by dealing seconds is that if the third card, and only the third card, would break the dealer it is skipped and the next card is played, whatever it is.

Otherwise play continues normally.

The house edge under this game would be 9.

I used to ask for donations but got so few I quit asking.

Now the site is comfortably supported by advertising revenue anyway.

What is the advantage to a player to add one ace to and remove one 2 from a 6-deck BJ game with AC rules?

My can be used to approximate the answer to this question.

Adding the ace would favor the player by 0.

Removing a two would favor the player by 0.

So the total effect would be 0.

My local casino has a rule where if the initial 2 cards, for example a pair of 4s, are split to form 2 hands and then the next card is another 4, if the player opts not to split again he will not be given the option to split should a 4 come out as https://microrcracing.com/blackjack/graton-casino-blackjack-rules.html next card on the second hand of his initial split.

My question is: does this rule give the house an advantage and if so, how?

If splitting is the right play you should do it every time, and if not never.

So this rule is moot if you play properly.

Now, according to your BJ House Edge Calculator with 6-deck, dealer stands on soft 17, double on any first two cards, late surrender, and resplit to four hands the house edge is 0.

Can you tell me why a similar calculator at click to see more reputable source gives a house edge under the same rules of 0.

Thanks for the compliments.

There are several assumptions going into the calculation that may cause the small difference.

For example are the cards shuffled after every hand or is a cut card used?

Does the player use total dependent basic strategy or composition dependent basic strategy?

Is rule interaction factored in, or is the calculator simply adding up the effect of each rule?

My figures are based on a random simulation using total dependent basic strategy, both of which work against the player, which may be the reason I come in a little higher.

It also may be due to an insufficient sample size in the random simulation.

Despite all these factors I think the difference is still negligible: just one bet per 11,000 hands played.

Have you ever heard of machines with these pay schedules?

If so do you know how they compare to the normal 3:2 machines?

If it helps the dealer stands on a soft 17 and doubling is not allowed after a split.

Thanks - have a happy new year and thanks for providing much very helpful information!

This is an interesting game.

Assuming all wins except blackjack pay 1 to 2, and blackjacks pay 13 to 2 I get a player advantage of 0.

Here is a basic strategy for that game.

It depends on your playing behavior.

Your advantage can get very close to 10% if you play aggressively, always betting half your bankroll, until you multiply it many times over or go bust trying.

My advice is keep your sitting more info and go for a big win or lose it all, whichever comes first.

I would call it the best among all the gambling sites I have house edge blackjack definition on the web.

A question about surrender in blackjack.

Some casinos for example Foxwoods give coupons for blackjack.

One good thing about the coupon is that when you surrender, you only lose half of your own money, and are allowed to keep the whole coupon.

But you lose your coupon no matter you win or lose.

I guess you want to surrender more in this situation, but was wondering what is the correct strategy?

You should be doing a lot of surrendering if you can keep the match play.

My blackjack is good for questions such as this.

A match play is worth just about half of face value.

Assuming the dealer hits a more info 17 here are those times.

I deal a visit web page game for friends every now and then using only 2 decks.

I was wondering what the best house edge is in regards to how many hands to deal to and splitting and doubling down rules.

Hope you have the time to answer my question.

If not I understand.

In my opinion the dealer should set the rules on the liberal side in home games.

Screwing your friends with stingy rules is just not cool.

If you use double decks I would recommend double on any first two cards, double after a split, and dealer stands on soft 17.

That will result in a house edge of 0.

However player mistakes should give you much more than that.

What is or where we can find the best basic article source for Club Blackjack as played in Finland, Sweden and Baltic Ferries.

We understand that this is a complete suckers game with house edge of nearly 9% but it is the only game in town and since we cannot think, is blackjack 21 pokerist useful we would at least die house edge blackjack definition as good soldiers are expected to do.

In fact it would have been the first legal game of blackjack I ever played.

Meanwhile there was a single-zero roulette table right next to it.

I assume the dealer stands on soft 17 in both cases.

It is my understanding that double after a split is allowed in Sweden but not Finland.

Assuming that I get a house edge of 5.

Here are the basic strategy charts.

What the reader did not understand is that the payouts are NOT 13:2 for BJ and 1:2 for other wins.

Like a slot or video poker machine, this machine takes your bet as soon as you hit the "Deal" button.

In other words, the player actually loses money on any non-BJ win.

Given these payouts, what is the EV for a single deck game?

And I thought the rules in Finland were bad.

So if ties lose, wins lose half, and blackjacks pay 11 to 2 the house edge would be 51%!

Best regards and keep up the great work.

I show the house edge of that game is 9.

Here is the appropriate basic strategy for this variation of Ties Lose Blackjack.

See for the version where the player can double on soft hands.

Fantastic site — A gambling bible no less.

Which would be the better rule for the player in an otherwise normal blackjack game with six decks.

The first rule is the insertion of two jokers in the shoe.

If the player gets a joker in his first two cards it is an automatic winner, paying even money.

If a joker comes out at any other time, including to the dealer, it is burned.

The second rule is a Five-Card Charlie.

So the probability is 1.

You can see from my blackjack section that the five-card Charlie rule is worth 1.

Assuming the cards are shuffled after every hand, or you are forced to flat bet, then given the choice as a player I would pick the five-card Charlie rule.

However, the joker rule would be very easy to exploit further.

The greater the ratio of jokers to cards in the shoe the more you should bet.

With at least 50% deck penetration, this should easily be enough to make it the better rule.

In Reno there is a new type of positive EV promotion.

Dealer naturals still win.

The basic game is 6-Deck H17 DAS RSA to 4 hands.

According to my calculations this results in a player advantage of 6.

Here is the basic strategy for that rule.

I understand the rule of 45 to be that you stand on 16 vs.

Obviously this would be pointless if counting, as the count would be a better indicator of when to stand on 16.

It is correct that in general if your 16 has at least one 4 or 5 in it then the odds genrerally favor standing.

This is obviously because a 4 or 5 will give you click the following article 20 or 21, and there is at least one less of them in the remaining deck.

In a two-deck here, I show following the rule of 45 lowers the house edge by 0.

In a six-deck game it only lower the house edge by 0.

In BJ, Dealer stand on Soft 17, Double after splitting alowed except on acesDoubling allowed on 3 cards, BJ pays 2:1, no insurance, no surrender.

In craps, COME bets paid 2:1 on 4 and 10, but no odds allowed on COME bets.

As my shows, the 2 to 1 on blackjacks is worth 2.

Otherwise the rules look standard.

All things considered, the house edge in the blackjack game has a player advantage of 2.

Every time this happens you get an extra unit, so it is worth 5.

Normally the house edge on the come bet is 1.

So I agree that craps was the better game to play.

The other rules are the standard, standing on all 17s.

Adding this all up, the bonuses are worth 11.

So this is nowhere near enough to compensate for the 50-cent commission.

more info play at a casino in London that offers single deck blackjack.

The player can play three hands: thus, there are a lot of cards exposed.

article source blackjack calculator at gamblingtools.

Now you just have to get the casino to let you use your computer at the table.

Could You please make a chart for Party Poker single deck blackjack.

Also, with best play, what are the odds.

The house edge under these rules is 0.

From my blackjack appendix 4, we see the probability of a win in blackjack is 42.

The probability of a win before a loss is 42.

So an action chip is worth about 46.

The value of this promotion is 46.

From my blackjack appendix 8, we see the house edge on the over-13 bet is 6.

Therefore, the expected loss due to the house edge of both bets is about 36 cents, and the expected gain is 71 cents, for a net gain of 35 cents per pair of bets.

It depends on the particular rules, but it is usually high because of a common rule that blackjack pays only even money.

I checked at the Suncoast and they have the following rules: one deck, dealer blackjack strategy 8 on soft 17, blackjack pays even money, late surrender allowed, player may only double on 10 or 11, double after split not allowed, split aces get one card each, only one split allowed, six card Charlie, dealer must stop with six cards.

The house edge of this game is 2.

Hi Wizard, always love your columns and miss those personals.

I have a question about a blackjack variation.

The following is the "on fire" blackjack rule from an online casino I have recently played at.

In order to be "On Fire" you must win three hands in a row.

You will notice the On Fire gauge at the bottom of the game screen.

When this gauge fills up, you will be on fire.

Once you have accomplished this, all winning blackjack hands pay you at 2-1 odds instead of 3-2 odds, dramatically increasing your potential pay out.

However, if you are on fire and you lose a hand, you lose your current on fire status and must go back and try to win three hands in a row.

Pushed hands do not affect your On Fire status.

How much does this lower the house edge?

Would it be +EV if you raised your stakes every time you were On Fire?

Would love to hear your thoughts.

The casino is jonwoodgaming.

Thanks My shows the probability of a net win, loss, and draw in blackjack are 40.

The probability of a win, not counting ties is 40.

The probability of three consecutive wins, skipping ties, is 0.

Assuming six decks, blackjack paying 2 to 1 is worth an extra 0.

So this gives the player 0.

The house edge is usually higher than that, but it is a nice reduction.

All this assumes you are flat betting.

If you could bet more on the "on fire" hands you could destroy them with a house edge of 1.

Thanks for maintaining this web site!

I have a question about a blackjack rule that is applied in Dutch casinos: When being dealt a pair of sevens, a third seven will earn you 2:1 on your bet, regardless if you win the hand or not.

However, this only applies when the sevens have NOT been split.

I know that there are 6 dealer up cards in basic strategy that allow splitting sevens and 7 that do not, so the player should have an edge in this particular situation.

But what are the odds of being dealt 3 sevens in blackjack in the first place?

And if dealt 3 sevens, what are please click for source odds they qualify for the 2:1 pay-out rule, based on a 4 to 6 decks, dealer stands on soft 17 basic strategy chart?

Hope you can figure this one out for me.

Keep up the good work!

I show that rule is worth 0.

Despite the incentive to hit 7,7 against a dealer 2-7, the player should still follow basic strategy and split.

Where can one get or what would be the basic strategies for those games?

Thank you for your time!

First the dealer wins ties and now blackjack sweets recipe />Finland has got to be the world leader for unusual and lousy blackjack rules.

Here is your basic strategy.

Assuming six decks, no dealer hole card, dealer stands on soft 17, no surrender, double after split allowed, and resplitting aces allowed, I get a house edge of 1.

In the UK insurance is only offered on a blackjack.

Have I got this right?

The value of taking insurance, when the true count is +3 or more, adds 0.

However this does not come close to half the total advantage from strategy changes.

Looking only at the top 18 count dependent plays the Illustrious 18plus the top 4 count dependent surrenders the Fab Four the total value to the counter is 0.

So correct insurance accounts for only 25% of the value of strategy changes.

A good counter will gain about another 1% by betting more in good counts.

So taking away the insurance option reduces the total value of counting by only about 8%.

In the UK it would be slightly less because you can still insure with a blackjack.

The advantage figures are rough and depend on lots of things.

The value of all surrender deviations is about the same of insurance deviations.

Do their other games really have no house edge?

For the benefit of other readers, the blackjack rules are as follows.

All other matching ranks may be split only once.

Following is the basic strategy.

Regarding the other games, the 2.

The roulette and video poker have zero house edge.

The bet limits are £5-£50 in blackjack, baccarat, and roulette, and the coinage is £1 in video poker, with a max bet of five coins.

I love the site; thanks for all the hard work.

The is great and I notice that most casinos have more than one set of rules.

Can I rightly assume that the better the rule set, the higher the table minimum at a given casino?

Yes, it is generally the case that the better the rules, the higher the minimum bet.

I was reading the entry on Wikipedia, and it said that when blackjack was not that popular, casinos added a bonus payout of 10 to 1 for the ace of spades and any black jack, hence the name.

It goes on to say that the bonus was quickly removed, but the name stuck.

I was wondering what the house edge was with a 10-1 payout for that hand.

So the probability of winning such a blackjack is 0.

The value of an additional 8.

Assuming otherwise liberal Vegas Strip rules, with a house edge ofthe player edge with the 10 to 1 rule would be 0.

Is this a better game than a 3 to 2 BJ with 6 decks and the dealer standing on a soft 17?

Also, in this case, would it be beneficial to double down since the BJ only pays even money?

The house edge of this game is 1.

The odds are better in ANY game where blackjack pays 3 to 2.

The racinos in Pennsylvania recently added electronic blackjack tables.

Apparently, to get them installed they had to work like a slot machine or video poker.

Does this mean the results are predetermined when the cards get dealt?

Also I do not know the rules, but do you know what is the house edge for this game?

The game you refer to is by Shufflemaster for their TMS-300 series of games.

It is mathematically equivalent to a hand-dealt game.

Conventional basic strategy should be used.

In all other states a single shoe is used.

Shufflemaster tells me the following rules are common to all units.

Double after split allowed.

Player may split only once.

Split aces get one card each.

The player is not informed when the shuffle takes place.

In single-deck game the cards are shuffled after every hand.

The following table shows the configurable rules and the house edge under each variation, assuming total-dependent basic strategy.

Number of Decks Blackjack Pays Soft 17 Hole Card House Edge 6 3 to 2 Stands American 0.

How does that affect the house?

The other rules are double on 10 and 11 only, no double after split, split other pairs once, and dealer stands on S17.

Not being allowed to split aces costs the player 0.

Overall the house edge under these rules is 0.

Bally Gaming has a single-deck, multi-hand, blackjack game.

The player plays seven hands against a single dealer hand.

There is an interesting rule this web page that if the game runs out of cards, all unbusted player hands automatically win.

What is the probability of running out of cards?

Can have suggest any strategy changes to run out the deck?

The house edge using total-dependent basic strategy is 2.

I ran a 7-player simulation, using total-dependent basic strategy, and the bust blackjack dealer odds of number of cards used per round was https://microrcracing.com/blackjack/cheating-blackjack.html />In almost 190 million rounds played, the most cards ever used was 42, which happened 7 times.

It is my educated opinion that even with computer perfect composition-dependent strategy the player would still realistically never see the last card.

You could cut down the house edge much more using composition-dependent strategy, according to all the cards seen as you go along.

My says the house edge under those rules, without the tax, is 0.

Add to that 0.

So the total house edge is 5.

In my opinion, players should refuse to play this game, on principle alone.

Here in Pennsylvania we have blackjack games, made by Shufflemaster, where the players use terminals to play against a video screen of a dealer.

Technically, only "slots" are legal in Pennsylvania.

I heard that the game was "retrofitted" to fit the definition of a slot.

What does that mean?

If this is just a glorified slot machine, do I really have any control over my fate?

To get around this law, each player and the dealer are dealt cards from a unique six-deck shoe.

So, you are in control of your own fate, but not that of the other players or the dealer.

I understand that the game is programmed with six-deck shoes.

According to my simulations, using separate shoes for the player and dealer adds 0.

I absolutely love your site.

I enjoy the strategies and probability discussions as much as, or more than, the actual gambling!

I was playing six-deck Blackjack in a St.

After playing a shoe, the cards were returned to the auto shuffler, which indicated a card was missing.

The dealer proceeded to deal the next shoe while the floor person inspected the returned set of cards.

Upon completion of this shoe, the missing card from the previous shoe a king was found in the un-dealt portion of the second shoe.

check this out this King was the bottom card and was left in the shuffler, it would have been in play in this first shoe the cut was in rear portion of the deck.

How much of an additional advantage did the house gain on me with this mistake?

Thank you for the kind words.

According to table D17 in by Don Schlesinger, removing one ten per deck increases the house edge by 0.

Dividing that by six, for the six-deck game, the effect is an increase in house edge of 0.

Hollywood Park has their new blackjack rules up on their site.

It seems like every casino in LA County has different blackjack rules, and they change frequently.

They are often complicated to analyze.

I was in Palace Station the other day and saw they had a few 7 to 5 double deck tables now.

They may just be testing the idea out, but it could catch on, just like 6 to 5 did.

So, you might want to include 7 to 5 in your rules variations.

Thanks, that click duly noted.

Normally, the house edge under Palace Station rules double deck, dealer hits soft 17, double after split, re-split aces is 0.

This rule bumps that up to 0.

The following table shows the increase in house advantage due to this rule.

I found an online casino with two interesting blackjack rules.

The first is that a player 21 will push against a dealer blackjack.

The second is that a blackjack tie pays 3 to 2.

What is the effect on the house edge of these rules?

Based on six decks, I show a player 21 pushing against a blackjack lowers the house edge by 0.

A blackjack tie paying 3 regret, casino arizona blackjack rules congratulate 2 lowers the house edge by 0.

No strategy changes are required.

What gain is there for a player when the house allows late surrender on a 6-deck shoe, when the house hits soft 17, and when the house stands on soft 17?

learn more here about an 8-deck shoe?

Answers to questions like that can be found using my by changing a rule and noting the effect on the house edge.

In general, it must be beneficial to the player, but was wondering by how much and if there are points at which you stop splitting.

I have found no information on this rule.

Unless you are counting cards, you should keep re-splitting fallout littlepip and blackjack much as possible, up to the maximum 24 hands in a six-deck shoe.

The value of infinite resplitting compared to a maximum of three times is very little.

It depends on whether or not double after split is allowed, but either way, the value is well under 0.

Obviously, this gives the house a huge probably insurmountable edge.

The rules they play by are generally hit on 16, stand on soft 17, blackjack pays 3-2, no surrender, double after split.

What effect does this have on house edge and is the only way to reduce that edge to increase your bet?

Is the math really that simple?

For the benefit of other readers, the Oklahoma casinos are much like those in the Los Angeles area, where players take turns banking.

If you can afford the risk of paying off all other wagers at the table, then by all means, do so.

Do you have any information on video blackjack?

I think your odds are best with the big Table Master units with big video screens housing attractive dealers.

Your odds of finding them will be better in low-roller casinos.

Some pay 3 to 2 on blackjack, and some only pay 6 to 5.

If you play an even-money game, the house edge will be 1.

Be sure to use a player card to earn whatever cash, free play, or comps the casino offers.

The picture below shows one of these products.

How does betting this amount affect the odds?

In a six-deck game, the probability of a winning blackjack is 4.

So, this is worth 2.

However, I think it is not a very elegant trick.

How lousy of a game is this, taking into account the nonrefundable reservation fee?

If we assume 70 hands per hour, a house edge of 0.

It would depend on the other rules, but assuming six decks and double after a split being normally allowed, then the house edge would be increased by 0.

If doubling after splitting is not otherwise normally allowed, then 0.

This situation actually applies in the gamewhere I get 0.

Keep in mind, when it comes to blackjack, such figures can be off by 0.

This question was raised and discussed in the forum of my companion site.

Here is an about it.

What is the house edge under this rule?

The standard Atlantic City rules are 6 or 8 decks, dealer stands on soft 17, double after split allowed, no surrender, no re-splitting aces, and the player may only split other pairs twice.

However, Resorts also has some tables with those rules except the dealer hits a soft 17.

Using myand assuming 8 decks, the house edge is 0.

In doing so, I define the house edge as the ratio of the expected loss to the sum of the bet and the fee.

I would assume they are going to have the dealer hit a soft 17 at these tables, making the overall house edge 11.

This is much worse than the 6 to 5 games or even money games they have in Vegas.

This question was raised and discussed in the forum of my companion site.

My question is what is this doing to the house edge?

The effect of each basic strategy change is the probability of the hand occurring and the cost of not making the correct play when it does.

My shows both the probability of each hand and the expected value of each play.

So hitting 8,8 against a dealer 9, 10 or ace increases the house edge by 0.

If the player surrenders instead of hitting, the effect drops to 0.

So, it is not a significant mistake.

To put it in comparison, taking "even money" with a blackjack against a dealer ace increases the house edge by 0.

If the player insures every blackjack and 20 a common mistakethen the error cost jumps to 0.

This question was raised and discussed in the forum of my companion site.

The blackjack rules on your Wizard of Vegas site indicate that at the Bighorn casino a blackjack pays 2 to 1, if at least 2 or more players at the table get a blackjack.

Can you tell me the effect of that rule?

I show that rule is worth 0.

According to mythe house edge is 0.

Doubling three or more cards is worth 0.

Considering the 2-1 blackjack rule, the following is the house edge according to the total number of players, including yourself.

Players House Edge 7 -0.

The last rule mentioned can also be found at the in Macau, too.

It is a breakeven game there, though, because of other bad rules, like doubling on 11 only.

I have a strategy for the five-card half-win rule on my blackjack page at.

A local Connecticut casino is having a one-day promotion, in the middle of July, where the player can triple down in Blackjack.

What would be the appropriate basic strategy and house edge?

I know about it.

The Mohegan Sun is running a "triple down" promotion for 24 hours, starting at 6:00 AM on July 15.

The used to have the following statement, but it was removed: Showing an eleven and looking to double down?

On Thursday, July 15th, guests who play Spanish 21 or Blackjack will be eligible to triple down on their bet f.

After a player receives their first two cards, they may make an additional wager up to triple the amount of the original wager.

Standard double down rules apply.

The removed content indicates that the player may quadruple down, because the total wager would be four times as much as the initial wager.

Maybe it was removed because it was a misprint.

Normally the house edge under those rules would be 0.

If the player may only double after a split, then the player should following theexcept if the player can quadruple down, but only double after a split, then the player should quadruple on 4,4 vs.

This question was raised and discussed in the forum of my companion site.

How does that affect the house edge?

In this situation, I define the house edge as the ratio of the expected player loss to the sum of the bet and the fee.

There is an article about this at.

A casino in Oklahoma is putting three jokers in a six-deck shoe of blackjack.

How does that affect the odds?

Stanford Wong address jokers in blackjack in his book.

There he says each joker per deck is worth 4.

So half a joker per deck would be worth 2.

This question was raised and discussed in the forum of my companion site.

I heard of a casino where if the dealer busts then he assumes all players left standing won.

The game is blackjack program java face up, except double down cards are dealt face down.

So if the double down card caused the player to bust, but the dealer also busted, then the player would win.

What would be the correct basic strategy under this rule, and the house edge?

If double for less is not allowed then I get a player edge of 4.

Here is that correct strategy.

Obviously, this strategy may set off some red flags.

If double for less is allowed, then I get a maximum player edge of 9.

When doubling for less, bet as little extra as possible, preferably just one penny.

In reality, most casinos require doubling with at least the table minimum.

This question was raised and discussed in the forum of my companion site.

I play at a casino that allows you to split pairs an unlimited number source times.

What is the effect of this rule?

I show the value of infinite re-splitting, compared to splitting up to a maximum of four hands, is worth 0.

This question was raised and discussed in the forum of my companion site.

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Software - MORE

The following paper takes an in depth look at the gambling game Blackjack, also known as. not overcome the house edge in the long run. Realizing this.. house advantage is about 0.42 percent meaning for every 100 bet the player will lose.

Enjoy!

One of the first things blackjack players learn when they start to get serious about. If all else is equal, a two-deck game has a lower house edge than a. We'll define games where the dealer hits soft 17, you can double down ...

Enjoy!

Software - MORE

Blackjack rules affect the house edge, so when you're playing for real money, the house rules are as. Note: “Soft” is a hand with an Ace, meaning it can't bust.

Enjoy!

The article addresses a variety of topics, including house advantage, confusion about house edge blackjack definition rates, game volatility, player value and comp policies, casino pricing mistakes, and regulatory issues.

Statistical advantages associated with the major games are also provided.

Casinos make money on their games because of the mathematics behind the games.

As Nico Zographos, dealer-extraordinaire for the 'Greek Syndicate' in Deauville, Cannes, and Monte Carlo in the 1920s observed about casino gaming: "There is no such thing as luck.

It is all mathematics.

That is what Mario Puzo was referring to in his famous novel Fools Die when his fictional casino boss character, Gronevelt, commented: "Percentages never lie.

We built all these hotels on percentages.

We stay rich on the percentage.

You can lose faith in everything, religion and God, women and love, good and evil, war and peace.

But the percentage will always stand fast.

Without the "edge," casinos would not exist.

With this edge, and because of a famous mathematical result called the law of large numbers, a casino is guaranteed to win in the long run.

Why is Mathematics Important?

click of the gaming industry have long accused it of creating the name "gaming" and using this as more politically correct than calling itself the "gambling industry.

Instead, they rely on mathematical principles to assure that their establishment generates positive gross gaming revenues.

The operator, however, must assure the gaming revenues are sufficient to cover deductions like bad debts, expenses, employees, taxes and interest.

Despite the obvious, many casino professionals limit their advancements by failing to understand the basic mathematics of the games and their relationships to casino profitability.

One casino owner would often test his pit bosses by asking how a casino could make money on blackjack if the outcome is determined simply by whether the player or the dealer came closest to 21.

The answer, typically, was because the casino maintained "a house advantage.

Given that products offered by casinos are games, managers must understand why the games provide the expected revenues.

In the gaming industry, nothing plays a more important role than mathematics.

Mathematics should also overcome the dangers of superstitions.

An owner of a major Las Vegas strip casino learn more here experienced a streak of losing substantial amounts of money to a few "high rollers.

His solution was simple.

He spent the evening spreading salt throughout the casino to ward off the bad spirits.

Before attributing this example to the idiosyncrasies of one owner, his are atypical only in their extreme.

Superstition has long been a part of gambling - from both sides of the table.

Superstitions can lead to irrational decisions that may hurt casino profits.

For example, believing that a particular dealer is unlucky against a particular winning player may lead to a decision to change dealers.

As many, if not most, players are superstitious.

At best, he may resent that the casino is trying to change his luck.

At worst, the player may feel the new dealer is skilled in methods to "cool" the game.

Perhaps he is even familiar with stories of old where casinos employed dealers to cheat "lucky" players.

Understanding the mathematics of a game also is important for the casino operator to ensure that the reasonable expectations of the players are met.

For most persons, gambling is entertainment.

It provides an outlet for adult play.

As such, persons have the opportunity for a pleasant diversion from ordinary life and from societal and personal pressures.

As an entertainment alternative, however, players may consider the value of the gambling experience.

For example, some people may have the option of either spending a hundred dollars during an evening by going to a professional basketball game or at a licensed casino.

If the house advantage is too strong and the person loses his money too quickly, he may not value that casino entertainment experience.

On the other hand, if a casino can entertain him for an evening, and he enjoys a "complimentary" meal or drinks, he may want to repeat the experience, even over a professional basketball game.

read more, new casino games themselves may succeed or fail based on player expectations.

In recent years, casinos have debuted a variety of new games that attempt to garner player interest and keep their attention.

Regardless of whether a game is fun or interesting to play, most often a player will not want to play games where his money is lost too quickly or where he has a exceptionally remote chance of returning home with winnings.

Mathematics also plays an important part in meeting players' expectations as to the possible consequences of his gambling activities.

If gambling involves rational decision-making, it would appear irrational to wager money where your opponent has a better chance of winning than you do.

Adam Smith suggested that all gambling, where the operator has an advantage, is irrational.

Adventure upon all the tickets in the lottery, and you lose for certain; and the greater the number of your tickets, the nearer you approach to this certainty.

He could save or gamble this money.

Even if he did this for years, the savings would not elevate his economic status to another level.

While the odds of winning are remote, it may provide the only opportunity to move to a higher economic class.

Since the casino industry is heavily regulated and some of the standards set forth by regulatory bodies involve mathematically related issues, casino managers also should understand the mathematical aspects relating to gaming regulation.

Gaming regulation is principally dedicated to assuring that the games offered in the casino are fair, honest, and that players get click at this page if they win.

Fairness is often expressed in the regulations as either requiring a minimum payback to the player or, in more extreme cases, as dictating the actual rules of the games offered.

Casino executives should understand the impact that rules changes have on the payback to players to assure they meet regulatory standards.

Equally important, casino executives should understand how government mandated rules would impact their gaming revenues.

The House Edge The player's chances of winning in a casino game and the rate at which he wins or loses money depends on the game, the rules in effect for that game, and for some games his level of skill.

The amount of money the player can expect to win or blackjack table hand motions in the long run - if the bet is made over and over again - is called the player's wager expected value EVor expectation.

When the player's wager expectation is negative, he will lose money in the long run.

When the wager expectation is viewed from the casino's perspective i.

For the roulette example, the house advantage is 5.

Here are the house edge blackjack definition for bets on a single-number in double-zero and single-zero roulette.

It is also called the house edge, the "odds" i.

Regardless of the method used to compute it, the house advantage represents the price to the player of playing the game.

Because this positive house edge exists for virtually all bets in a casino ignoring the poker room and sports book where a few professionals can make a livinggamblers are faced with an uphill and, in the long run, losing battle.

There are some exceptions.

The odds bet in craps has zero house edge although this bet cannot be made without making another negative expectation wager and there are a few video poker machines that return greater than 100% if played with perfect strategy.

Occasionally the casino will even offer a promotion that house edge blackjack definition the astute player a positive expectation.

These promotions are usually mistakes - sometimes casinos don't check the math - and are terminated once the casino realizes the player has the edge.

But by and large the player will lose money in the long run, and the house edge is a measure of how fast the money will be lost.

A player betting in a game with a 4% house advantage will tend to lose his money twice as fast as a player making bets with a 2% house edge.

The trick to intelligent casino gambling - at least from the mathematical expectation point of view - is to avoid the games and bets with the large house advantages.

Some casino games are pure chance - no amount of skill or strategy can alter the odds.

These games include roulette, craps, baccarat, keno, the big-six wheel of fortune, and slot machines.

Of these, baccarat and craps offer the best odds, with house advantages of 1.

Roulette and slots cost the player more - house advantages of 5.

Games where an element of skill can affect the house advantage include blackjack, video poker, and the four popular poker-based table games: Caribbean Stud poker, Let It Ride, Three Card poker, and Pai Gow poker.

For the poker games, optimal strategy results in a house edge in the 3% to 5% range CSP has the largest house edge, PGP the lowest, with LIR and TCP in between.

For video poker the statistical advantage varies depending on the particular machine, but generally this game can be very player friendly - house edge less than 3% is not uncommon and some are less than 1% - if played with expert strategy.

Blackjack, the most popular of all table games, offers the skilled player some of the best odds in the casino.

The house advantage varies slightly depending on the rules and number of decks, but a player using basic strategy faces little or no disadvantage in a single-deck game and only https://microrcracing.com/blackjack/pokerrrr-2-see-hole-cards.html 0.

Despite these numbers, the average player ends up giving the casino a 2% edge due to mistakes and deviations from basic strategy.

Complete basic strategy tables can be found in many books and many casino-hotel gift shops sell color-coded credit card size versions.

Rule variations favorable to the player include fewer decks, dealer stands on soft seventeen worth 0.

If the dealer hits soft seventeen it will cost you, as will any restrictions on when you can double down.

Probability versus Odds Probability represents the long run ratio of of times an outcome occurs to of times experiment is conducted.

Odds represent the long run ratio of of times an outcome does not occur to of times an outcome occurs.

The true odds of an event represent the payoff that would make the bet on that event fair.

Confusion about Win Rate There are all kinds of percentages in the world of gaming.

Win percentage, theoretical win percentage, hold percentage, and house advantage come to mind.

Sometimes casino bosses use these percentages interchangeably, as if they are just different names for the same thing.

Admittedly, in some cases this is correct.

House advantage is just another name for theoretical win percentage, and for slot machines, hold percentage is in principle equivalent to win percentage.

But there are fundamental differences among these win rate measurements.

The house advantage - the all-important percentage that explains how casinos make money - is also called the house edge, the theoretical win percentage, and expected win percentage.

In double-zero roulette, this figure is 5.

In the long run the house will retain 5.

In the short term, of course, the actual win percentage will differ from the theoretical win percentage the magnitude of this deviation can be predicted from statistical theory.

The actual win percentage is just the actual win divided by the handle.

Because of the law of large numbers - or as some prefer to call it, blackjack betfair law of averages - as the number of trials gets larger, the actual win percentage should get closer to the theoretical win percentage.

Because handle can be difficult to measure for table games, performance is often measured by hold percentage and sometimes erroneously called win percentage.

Hold percentage is equal to win divided by drop.

In Nevada, this figure is about 24% for roulette.

The drop and hold percentage are affected by many factors; we won't delve into these nor the associated management issues.

Suffice it to say that the casino will not in the long term keep 24% of the money bet on the spins of roulette wheel - well, an honest casino won't.

To summarize: House advantage and theoretical win percentage are the same thing, hold percentage is win over drop, win percentage is win over handle, win percentage approaches the house advantage as the number of plays increases, and hold percentage is equivalent to win percentage for slots but not table games.

In Let It Ride, for example, the casino advantage is either 3.

Those familiar with the game know that the player begins with three equal base bets, but may withdraw one or two of these initial units.

The final amount put at risk, then, can be one 84.

In the long run, the casino will win 3.

So what's the house edge for Let It Ride?

Some prefer to say 3.

The question of whether to use the base bet or average bet size also arises in Caribbean Stud Poker 5.

For still other games, the house edge can be stated including or excluding ties.

The prime examples here are the player 1.

Again, these are different views on the casino edge, but the expected revenue will not change.

That the house advantage can appear in different disguises might be unsettling.

When properly computed and interpreted, however, regardless of which representation is chosen, the same truth read: money emerges: expected win is the same.

Volatility and Risk Statistical theory can be used to predict the magnitude of the difference between the actual win percentage and the theoretical win percentage for a given number of wagers.

When observing the actual win percentage a player or casino may experience, how much variation from theoretical win can be expected?

What is a normal fluctuation?

The basis for the analysis of such volatility questions is a statistical measure called the standard deviation essentially the average deviation of all possible outcomes from the expected.

Together with the central limit theorem a form of the law of large numbersthe standard deviation SD can be used to determine confidence limits with the following volatility guidelines: Volatility Analysis Guidelines · Only 5% of the time will outcomes will be more than 2 SD's from expected outcome · Almost never 0.

Computing the SD value is beyond the scope of this article, but to get an idea behind confidence limits, consider a series of 1,000 pass line wagers in craps.

Since each wager has a 1.

It can be shown house edge blackjack definition omitted that the wager standard deviation is for a single pass line bet is 1.

Applying the volatility guidelines, we can say that there is a 95% chance the player's actual win will be between 49 units ahead and 77 units behind, and almost certainly between 81 units ahead and 109 units behind.

Note that if the volatility analysis is done in terms of the percentage win rather than the number of units or amount wonthe confidence limits will converge to the house advantage as the number of wagers increases.

This is the result of the law of large numbers - as the number of trials gets larger, the actual win percentage should get closer to the theoretical win percentage.

Risk in the gaming business depends on the house advantage, standard deviation, bet size, and length of play.

Player Value and Complimentaries Using the house advantage, bet size, duration of play, and pace of the game, a casino can determine how much it expects to win from a certain player.

Using a house advantage of 1.

Many casinos set comp complimentary policies by giving the player back a set percentage of their earning potential.

Although comp and rebate policies based on theoretical loss are the most popular, rebates on actual losses and dead chip programs are also used in some casinos.

Some programs involve a mix of systems.

The mathematics associated with these programs will not be addressed in this article.

Casino Pricing Mistakes In an effort to entice players and increase business, casinos occasionally offer novel wagers, side bets, increased payoffs, or rule variations.

These promotions have the effect of lowering the house advantage and the effective price of the game for the player.

This is sound reasoning from a marketing standpoint, but can be disastrous for the casino if care is not taken to ensure the math behind the promotion is sound.

One casino offered a baccarat commission on winning banker bets of only 2% instead of the usual 5%, resulting in a 0.

Again, this is an easy calculation.

Not to be outdone, an Indian casino in California paid 3 to 1 on naturals during their "happy hour," offered three times a day, two days a week for over two weeks.

This promotion gave the player a whopping 6% edge.

A small Las Vegas casino offered a blackjack rule variation called the "Free Ride" in which players were given a free right-to-surrender token every time they received a natural.

Proper use of the token led to a player edge of 1.

In the gaming business, it's all about click here math" or "good math.

Players will get "lucky" in the short term, but that is all part of the grand design.

Fluctuations in both directions will occur.

We call these fluctuations good luck or bad luck depending on the direction of the fluctuation.

There is no such thing as luck.

It is all mathematics.

Gaming Regulation and Mathematics Casino gaming is one of the most regulated industries in the world.

Most gaming regulatory systems share common objectives: keep the games fair and honest and assure that players are paid if they win.

Fairness and honesty are different concepts.

A casino can be honest but not fair.

Honesty refers to whether the casino offers games whose chance elements are random.

Fairness refers to the game house edge blackjack definition - how much of each dollar wagered should the casino be able to keep?

A slot machine that holds, on average, 90% of every dollar bet is certainly not fair, but could very well be honest if the outcomes of each play are not predetermined in the casino's favor.

Such evidence can range from straightforward probability analyses to computer simulations and complex statistical studies.

Requirements vary across jurisdictions, but it is not uncommon to see technical language in gaming regulations concerning specific statistical tests that must be performed, confidence limits that must be met, and other mathematical specifications and standards relating to game outcomes.

Summary Tables for House Advantage The two tables below show the house advantages for many of the popular casino games.

The first table is a summary of the popular games and the second gives a more detailed breakdown.

House Advantages for Popular Casino Games Game House Advantage Roulette double-zero 5.

Optimal strategy assumed unless otherwise noted.

Note: This summary is the intellectual property of house edge blackjack definition author and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

Do not use or reproduce without proper citation and permission.

Selected Biblilography Cabot, Anthony N.

Gaming Regulation and Mathematics: A Marriage of Necessity, John Marshall Law Review, Vol.

Casino Gaming: Policy, Economics, and Regulation, UNLV International Gaming Institute, Las Vegas, NV.

The Business of Gaming: Economic and Management Issues, Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming, University of Nevada, Reno, NV.

Gambling and Commercial Gaming: Essays in Business, Economics, Philosophy and Science, Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming, University of Nevada, Reno, NV.

The Theory of Gambling and Statistical Logic, revised edition, Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications, 3rd ed.

The Theory of Blackjack, 6th ed.

Extra Stuff: Gambling Ramblings, Huntington Press, Las Vegas, NV.

Humble, Lance, and Cooper, Carl 1980.

The World's Greatest Blackjack Book, Doubleday, New York, NY.

Kilby, Jim and Fox, Jim 1998.

Casino Operations Management, Wiley, New York, NY.

Chance, Luck and Statistics, Dover Publications, Mineola, NY.

The Mathematics of Games and Gambling, The Mathematical Association of America, Washington, D.

The Mathematics of Gambling, Gambling Times, Hollywood, CA.

blackjack trivia questions the Dealer, Vintage Books, New York, NY.

Vancura, Olaf, Cornelius, Judy A.

Finding the Edge: Mathematical Analysis of Casino Games.

Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming, University of Nevada, Reno, NV.

Smart Casino Gambling, Index Publishing Group, San Diego, CA.

Lady Luck: The Theory of Probability, Dover Publications, New York, NY.

The Casino Gambler's Guide, Harper and Row, New York.

His publications include Practical Casino Math co-authored with Anthony N.

Cabot and numerous articles in scholarly and gaming industry journals.

Hannum regularly speaks on casino mathematics to audiences around the globe.

Some of this guide has been excerpted from Practical Casino Math.

For more information, see.

Follow on Twitter and on Facebook © 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

Do not copy or reuse without permission.

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